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Autoimmune Diseases, Genetics, and Exposure to Toxins are some of the significant causes of Thyroid disorders. At Bay Area Endocrinology, we're here to educate you and help you take care of your thyroid conditions.

Understanding the Various Thyroid Disorders

By Endocrinology

Understanding Thyroid Disorders

Thyroid disorders, also known as thyroiditis, are a group of conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that produces hormones that regulate metabolism. Thyroid disorders are becoming more common in recent years, with an increasing number of people diagnosed with these conditions. It can significantly impact a person’s health and quality of life, so it is essential to understand their causes, signs, and symptoms.

We treat thyroid conditions at our medical practice in medical practice in Tampa, FL, treating all thyroid conditions. Our experienced and knowledgeable staff have treated patients with thyroid disorders for many years. We have the latest technology and equipment to diagnose and treat thyroid disorders. We understand that dealing with a thyroid disorder can be stressful and overwhelming, so we strive to provide our patients with comprehensive, individualized care. We take the time to listen to our patients, answer their questions and concerns, and work with them to develop a treatment plan tailored to their specific needs. Here is what you need to know about thyroid disorders.

The Main Types

1. Hyperthyroidism

This is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. This can cause many symptoms, including weight loss, increased appetite, anxiety, irritability, rapid heartbeat, sweating, and tremors. Hyperthyroidism can also lead to eye problems, such as bulging eyes and double vision, as well as skin changes, such as thinning and fine wrinkling. Hyperthyroidism can be caused by an autoimmune disorder, such as Graves’ disease, or by a benign or malignant tumor on the thyroid gland.

2. Hypothyroidism

In this condition, the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. This can cause various symptoms, including fatigue, weight gain, depression, dry skin, hair loss, cold intolerance, and constipation. Hypothyroidism can also lead to high cholesterol, heart disease, and infertility. Hypothyroidism can be caused by an autoimmune disorder, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, or a lack of iodine in the diet.

The Major Causes

1. Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases are a significant cause of thyroid disorders. In autoimmune conditions such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease, the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, causing damage and leading to overproduction or underproduction of hormones. Autoimmune thyroid disorders are more common in women and often run in families.

2. Genetics

Genetics can also play a role in the development of thyroid disorders. Certain inherited genetic conditions, such as congenital hypothyroidism, can cause the thyroid gland to not function properly from birth. These disorders are caused by mutations in the genes that control the development and function of the thyroid gland. Some genetic disorders can be inherited in an autosomal dominant or recessive pattern, meaning that only one copy of the altered gene is needed for the disease to occur or that both copies of the gene must be changed, respectively.

3. Exposure to Toxins

Certain chemicals, such as perchlorate, a component of rocket fuel, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are industrial chemicals banned for decades, can disrupt the normal functioning of the thyroid gland. These toxins can interfere with the production and release of thyroid hormones, leading to hypothyroidism. Exposure to radiation, such as that radiation therapy for cancer or from a nuclear accident, can also damage the thyroid gland, leading to thyroid disorders.

The Different Tests

1. TSH test

TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) test is a blood test that measures the level of TSH in the blood. This test determines if the thyroid gland produces too much or too little thyroid hormone. High levels of TSH can indicate hypothyroidism, while low levels can indicate hyperthyroidism.

2. Thyroid Antibody Test

This test measures the levels of antibodies that attack the thyroid gland in the blood. High levels of these antibodies can indicate an autoimmune disorder, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or Graves’ disease.

3. Thyroid Scan

A thyroiditis scan uses a small amount of radioactive material to create images of the thyroid gland. This test can help to identify any abnormalities in the thyroid gland and can also help to determine if a lump or nodule is benign or cancerous.

4. Radioactive Iodine Uptake Test

This test measures how the thyroid gland takes up much radioactive iodine. This test can help identify the cause of hyperthyroidism.

Treatment Options

1. Anti-thyroid Medicine

These medications work by blocking the production of thyroid hormones. They are typically used to treat hyperthyroidism caused by an autoimmune disorder like Graves’ disease. These medications can take several weeks to months to take effect, but they can help to decrease the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and reduce the size of the thyroid gland.

2. Radioiodine Therapy

This treatment uses a small amount of radioactive iodine to destroy part of the thyroid gland, which can help reduce thyroid-hormone production. This treatment is usually used for hyperthyroidism caused by an overactive thyroid or nodules.

3. Thyroidectomy

This surgical procedure involves the removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. This treatment is usually used for severe cases of hyperthyroidism or thyroid cancer.

4. Beta-blockers

These medications can help control some symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as rapid heartbeat and tremors, by slowing down the heart rate. They can be used temporarily to control symptoms while other treatments take effect.

Thyroid disorders are treatable conditions that can significantly impact a person’s health and quality of life. The treatment choice will depend on the specific type of thyroid disorder and the patient’s needs. See a healthcare professional if you suspect you may have a thyroid disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent the development of long-term complications. Regular monitoring and follow-up care are also essential to ensure effective treatment and make any necessary adjustments. If you suspect that you or someone you know might be suffering from a thyroid disorder, don’t hesitate to schedule an appointment with our specialist and doctor to take control of your health.

Signs of hypercalcemia may vary, and they can include: frequent urination and excess thirst, fatigue, depression, and more. The good news is that our Thyroid Doctor in Tampa can help. Find out more here!

Everything You Need to Know about Calcium and Parathyroid Condition 

By Endocrinology

Hypercalcemia is a disease that leads to abnormal amounts of calcium in the bloodstream. In most cases, the condition can cause kidney stones, brittle bones, weakness, fatigue, and other issues.

Hypercalcemia results from overactive parathyroid glands. Other causes of hypercalcemia may include taking too many vitamin D supplements and calcium, medications, and other medical disorders.

What Is Parathyroid Gland?

The parathyroid gland contains four tiny glands in the neck around the thyroid gland. These glands constantly control the amount of phosphorous, magnesium, and calcium circulating in your body. Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone is a polypeptide that maintains calcium in the bloodstream. Low calcium levels within the bloodstream stimulate the production of parathyroid hormone. High amounts of calcium in the blood prevent the production of parathyroid hormone.

The crucial balance can get disrupted if parathyroid glands fail to function. As a result, the amounts of calcium in the bloodstream get whack, leading to two conditions; Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: When parathyroid glands are under-active, releasing too little PTH. This lowers blood calcium levels. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: When parathyroid glands are overactive and release too much PTH. This causes blood calcium levels to rise.

Symptoms and Signs of Hyperparathyroidism

You may not experience symptoms if you have hyperparathyroidism at an early stage. However, if you have mild hyperparathyroidism, you can experience the following symptoms;

  • Depression
  • Feeling tired
  • Joint pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle weakness
  • Trouble concentrating

If you have severe hyperparathyroidism, you may experience these signs and symptoms;

  • Constipation
  • Bone pain
  • Confusion
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism

In most cases, doctors diagnose parathyroid conditions by ordering;

Blood Tests. Your doctor will likely order a blood test to confirm the results if they suggest that your blood calcium levels are abnormally high. Many calcium levels can increase for many reasons. However, if your doctor notices excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone in your blood, they will diagnose hyperparathyroidism.

Additional Tests. After diagnosing hyperparathyroidism, your doctor will likely order more tests. This will help them identify possible causes of the parathyroid condition and its severity. These tests may include the following;

Urine Tests. Urine test helps your healthcare provider understand how well your kidneys function. It also provides information on how much calcium passes in your urine. The test helps to determine the severity of the parathyroid condition. If the result found low calcium levels in the urine, the disease doesn’t need treatment.

Bone Mineral Density Test. The test helps to identify if you have developed osteoporosis. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the most common test to measure bone mineral density.

Imaging Tests of Kidneys. Your doctor can order imaging tests of your abdomen to identify if you have kidney stones or other related issues.

Hyperparathyroidism Treatment

If you experience mild hyperparathyroidism, your doctor may choose not to treat it immediately. Instead, they will monitor your blood calcium levels, kidney function, blood pressure, and bone density.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies

If your healthcare provider believes that your hyperparathyroidism doesn’t require immediate attention, ensure to;

  • Exercise regularly to keep your bones strong
  • Drink a lot of water
  • Avoid taking lithium or thiazide diuretics because these drugs can raise your level of calcium.
  • Consult your physician if you need to take a Vitamin D supplement, especially if your vitamin D level is low.
  • Avoid smoking, as this may increase bone loss. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best way to quit.

Your provider may recommend surgery if you have severe hyperparathyroidism signs and symptoms. Surgery by qualified professionals can treat hyperparathyroidism in about 95% of cases.

Medical Treatment

Medications to cure hyperparathyroidism may include;


As the name suggests, calcimimetics drugs mimic calcium circulating in the bloodstream. The drug triggers parathyroid glands to produce parathyroid hormone. Calcimimetics is a perfect alternative to treat hyperparathyroidism, primarily if surgery hasn’t successfully treat the disorder.

Hormone Replacement Therapy

This is especially true for women beyond menopause with symptoms of osteoporosis. Hormone replacement is an ideal solution that can help bones keep calcium.


Bisphosphonates can also prevent calcium loss and reduce osteoporosis caused by hyperparathyroidism.

Tell-Tale Signs of Hypercalcemia

Signs of hypercalcemia vary from mild to severe. These may include;

  • Kidneys: Too much calcium can make your kidney strive to filter it, leading to frequent urination and excess thirst.
  • Brain: Hypercalcemia can alter your brain functions, resulting in fatigue, lethargy, and confusion. In some cases, it can lead to depression.
  • Digestive system: Excessive calcium can cause nausea, constipation, vomiting, and stomach upset.
  • Bones and muscles: Hypercalcemia can weaken muscles and cause bone pain.
  • Heart: Although rarely, hypercalcemia can alter how your heart works, causing fainting, palpitations, and other heart issues.

When to See an Endocrinologist

Seek medical attention immediately after you start developing symptoms of hypercalcemia. These include urinating frequently, being incredibly thirsty, and experiencing abdominal pain.

Hypercalcemia Complications

Hypercalcemia complications may include;

Osteoporosis. Excessive release of calcium into your blood can cause osteoporosis. This can cause bone fractures.

Kidney Failure. Hypercalcemia can damage your kidneys, restricting their ability to function correctly.

Kidney Stones. Kidney crystals may occur if your urine contains excessive calcium. Over time, passing these stones becomes painful.


No treatment is needed for mild hypercalcemia. However, your endocrinologist can recommend the following treatment if you have severe hypercalcemia.


Your healthcare provider might recommend the following medicines;

Calcitonin. This is a hormone from salmon and can help manage calcium levels within the bloodstream.

Denosumab. Also known as Xgeva, this medication is commonly used to cure individuals with cancer-related hypercalcemia. This is especially true for those who don’t respond well to bisphosphonates.

IV diuretics. This fluid can promptly reduce the calcium level in the blood, preventing nervous system damage and heart rhythm issues.

Prednisone. This is designed for short-term use, mainly when a high vitamin D level causes hypercalcemia.

Find out what the five main symptoms of Osteoperosis are. At Bay Area Endocrinology of Tampa, we're here to diagnose and treat osteoporosis and increase your quality of life!

What To Know About Osteoporosis

By Endocrinology

Osteoporosis is the thinning of the bones, which leads to an increased risk of fracture. The body is constantly absorbing and replacing bone tissue. With osteoporosis, new bone formation does not occur after removing old bone. Most people do not know they have the condition until they get a fracture. It is estimated that millions have osteoporosis. One in two women and one in four men are at risk of developing it. Women over 40 are at a higher risk because after menopause, they lose bone mass, as do men older than 50.

We are a Tampa-based facility that focuses on thyroid conditions. We have years of experience and are dedicated to providing the best treatment. Our facility is top-notch with state-of-the-art equipment to give you your best chance of recovery. Our team is well-trained and knowledgeable to provide you with the best care. Our approach is holistic as we address your condition’s underlying cause. Feel free to reach out to us and let us help you.

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Stooped Shape to the Spine. This occurs when there is too much bone matrix present in the spine. The long spine bones support most of the weight in the body. Too much bone matrix present can cause abnormalities in bone density, leading to a curved or stooped posture. This symptom may cause the affected individual to walk with a bit of a waddle.

Height loss. Although it happens at a very slow rate, height loss is a symptom of osteoporosis. The bones begin to compress, and the vertebrae collapse on each other. Height loss can begin early on but becomes more prominent as time goes on. In cases of extreme height loss, patients may have a hunched back and be unable to straighten their stature.

Receding Gums. The jawbone is connected to the skull, and the loss of bone density in this area leads to receding gums. This occurs when there is an inadequate level of calcium in the body. When the teeth are not adequately covered by gum tissue, it can lead to tooth decay or periodontal disease. Gum recession can be treated with implants, but restoring lost tissue is impossible.

Back pain. Another symptom of Osteoporosis is back pain. This occurs when the vertebrae in the spine collapse and push against a nerve or spinal cord. Back pain can be very severe and cause movement to become very difficult. It also limits mobility in the body, as some vertebrae can no longer move smoothly.

Fractures. In osteoporosis, there is a decreased ability for new bone to form after the removal of old bone. This can cause bones to break from everyday stress or low-impact injuries. If the break occurs in major bones, it can cause significant pain. It may also lead to other fractures in the same area, which can cause difficulty moving.


Here are some ways to get a diagnosis for Osteoporosis.

Bone Density Test. This simple test can tell the medical professional if the bones in your body have enough bone matter. They use a Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan to determine the density of the bones. The scan will emit low-level radiation and only take a few minutes of your time. With this test, the medical professional can see if your bones are developing correctly or if bone tissue is lost in the body.

Blood Test

A blood test can be administered to determine the levels of calcium and vitamin D in the body. The blood test is a simple procedure that takes very little time. It is necessary to find out if there is an imbalance in either of these compounds, as it will help with your diagnosis. The specialist may also check for other markers of Osteoporosis, such as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and Osteocalcin.

Treatment Options

Osteoporosis is manageable and treatable. It is a condition that will get worse with time if it is not treated, so it is best to get treatment as soon as possible.

Diet. The best diet for osteoporosis is to consume as much calcium as possible. Calcium helps to keep the bones strong and healthy.

Exercise. Exercise is beneficial in treating osteoporosis because it increases bone density and muscle strength. The bone strength built and maintained through exercise will reduce the risk of injury in osteoporosis.

Manipulative Therapy. This involves using an instrument to help correct faulty or relevant skeletal alignment. The machine has computer software to analyze data from sensors attached to the body. The goal is to ensure that the affected area is organized and properly aligned and that there are no other issues.

Medication. Depending on the severity of osteoporosis, medication may be required to control the condition. The drugs are designed to raise the level of calcium in the blood to reduce the loss of bone mass. Most medications will cause side effects, but most can be managed with proper monitoring by your doctor.

Osteoporosis is manageable for those who have it. Taking the proper medications and doing standard exercises to build bone mass can make a big difference in preventing fractures. Osteoporosis is not curable but can be managed. If you suspect you may have it or any other bone-related problem, please make an appointment to see your doctor.

We are here to help you and ensure you get the proper treatment. If you have any questions about osteoporosis, please don’t hesitate to contact our office; we’ll be happy to help you.

What are the symptoms of thyroid conditions? What kind of disorders exist? What treatments are available? In our blog post, we'll explain all of this and more. Find out more on our blog post here!

What are the symptoms of thyroid problems in females?

By Endocrinology

Thyroid diseases are common among females, with an estimated 1.6-2% of all women suffering from thyroid problems, either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. This disease, in general, can be challenging to diagnose and manage. Patients may not be aware of the signs and symptoms, and even when they seek medical attention, the condition, in many cases, has already progressed too far for effective treatment. It is essential to note the signs and symptoms earlier so that patients can take preventative measures. If detected early enough, the symptoms can be treated effectively by an endocrinologist.

What Is Thyroid?

The thyroid gland lies in the front part of the neck. It is a butterfly-shaped organ that produces hormones that affect your metabolism and how your body uses energy. It wraps around both sides of the windpipe (trachea), connecting to muscles in front of each breastbone (sternum). The pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ at the base of the brain, controls it. The pituitary gland makes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which tells the gland how much hormone to make. As noted above, there are two types of problems, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

What is hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) is by far the most common condition. Women are about nine times as likely as men to develop hypothyroidism, with the peak age of onset being between 35 and 55 years old. The condition is usually diagnosed in middle-aged women and older. It is defined as an under-functioning thyroid gland. The hormones T3 and T4 are either not produced in adequate quantities or are not released into the bloodstream. Changes in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats characterize hypothyroidism. The gland shapes the development of an embryo and fetus during pregnancy. It also influences our weight, muscle strength, energy levels, heart rate, digestion, and body temperature.

What is hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which the gland produces too much hormone. Hyperthyroidism causes a person to experience fever, anxiety, nervousness, sweating, and a rapid heart rate. The condition can also cause irregular menstrual periods and infertility.

Symptoms of thyroid problems in females

The symptoms may vary depending on whether the disorder is hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism in females

1. Weight gain

Weight gain is a common symptom of hypothyroidism. The weight gain may result from decreased metabolism due to insufficient hormones, resulting in energy loss and fat accumulation.

2. Fatigue

Fatigue is another common symptom of hypothyroidism. It increases the risk of depression, heart problems (including heart attack), or diabetes when associated with low energy levels and reduced physical stamina. In women, it can also impact their fertility or ability to become pregnant.

3. Low body temperature (hypothermia)

Hypothyroidism often causes hypothermia, during which the average body temperature of a person is below 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. It is common for hypothyroid patients to feel cold even in warm places and situations.

4. Infertility

Another common symptom of hypothyroidism is infertility (failure to conceive). If the problem is severe, people may become infertile as early as their teenage years.

5. Hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle

Women may notice their menstrual periods becoming heavier, more frequent, irregular, or stop altogether. When the problem is not corrected, women might also experience vaginal dryness and painful intercourse.

6. Mood swings or depression

Mood changes are common among hypothyroid patients due to an overstimulated central nervous system (CNS). Patients may experience heightened sensitivity to external stimuli (irritability, oversensitivity to the slightest thing) or a sense of isolation.

7. Anxiety

People with hypothyroidism may feel nervous or tense, while others might experience anxiety and panic attacks. The anxiety can be so intense that patients tend to avoid social situations, which can fuel further depression and even worsen the condition.

8. Sleepiness

Patients struggle to stay awake and feel drowsy even during daytime activities. They experience an overwhelming sense of tiredness or fatigue at the beginning of each day, and even after a whole night’s sleep can feel exhausted at work.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in females

1. Extreme nervousness

When hyperthyroidism occurs, a person might feel very nervous and restless with a fast heartbeat (tachycardia). The symptoms could be associated with feelings of anger or irritability.

2. Irregular menstrual cycles or no menstruation

If the condition is inaccurately treated, it can cause irregular menstrual cycles or even delay or stop menstruation altogether due to excessive hormone secretion. This is called amenorrhea.

3. Depression

People with hyperthyroidism are more prone to depression than those with hypothyroidism. When combined with other symptoms, hyperthyroidism can cause severe emotional distress, complicating treatment and increasing the risk of suicidal thoughts or actions.

4. Weight loss

As a result of increased calorie intake and reduced metabolism, people with hyperthyroidism often experience rapid weight loss (anorexia).

5. Increased risk for heart disease

Patients with hyperthyroidism experience increased cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) due to increased cholesterol production by the liver and fat deposits in the arteries (atherosclerosis).

6. Muscle weakness and tremors

A fast heartbeat and high blood pressure can result in muscle weakness, especially in the legs. When hyperthyroidism occurs, patients may experience symptoms such as muscle cramping, trembling or shakiness, and problems with coordination (ataxia).

7. Hair loss

Hair loss or hair thinning is one of the most common symptoms of both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The hairs on the head are not as elastic as they should be, which results in hair breakage and excessive shedding.


If you notice any of these symptoms, it is vital that you seek medical attention from a Bay Area endocrinologist doctor. Bay Area physicians specialize in treating hormonal diseases. The goal of treatment is to reposition the patient’s gland so that it functions properly and produces average amounts of hormones. Treatment depends on the patient’s medical condition. The doctor will order one or more blood tests to evaluate the patient’s problem and determine the treatment needed.


Is Thyroid Disease Curable?

By Endocrinology

Thyroid disease is a condition that affects millions of people worldwide. There are many different types of thyroid disease, but the most common is Graves’ disease. Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body’s immune system to attack the gland. This can lead to several health problems, including weight gain, fatigue, and depression. While there is no cure for Graves’ disease, treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. If you think you might have the condition, you must see your doctor for a diagnosis and discuss your treatment options. Is the disease curable? Let’s explore together!


What Is Thyroid Disease, and What Are Its Causes?

Thyroid disease is a disorder that occurs when the gland does not produce enough of its hormones or produces them in excess. Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are critical in regulating essential metabolic functions, like energy production and maintaining healthy cholesterol levels. The two most common types of this condition are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism occurs when the condition does not produce enough of its hormones, while hyperthyroidism occurs when it overproduces them. Genetic factors, environmental toxins, autoimmune disorders, and iodine deficiency can cause it. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, and dietary modification; however, since it is a chronic condition with no cure, ongoing management is essential for controlling symptoms in the long term. Early detection through regular medical screenings is key to managing it successfully. 


How Is Thyroid Disease Diagnosed and Treated?

The diagnosis and treatment of the disease are complex and intricate, requiring the collective experience of experts in medicine, radiology, and endocrinology. Typically, a physician will perform a physical examination that includes blood tests to check hormone levels. Imaging technologies, such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI, may be used to examine any nodules or growths found on the affected gland. A biopsy can help diagnose certain types of its cancer if abnormalities are identified during this process. Once there’s this condition or cancer diagnosis, it’s important for industry leaders to come together to determine the best options for treatment. If it’s cancer-related, surgery is usually recommended to remove the affected tissue or entire gland. However, other treatments or medications may be implemented, depending on the condition’s cause and its severity. Regular follow-ups with your endocrinologist throughout this process are critical for optimal long-term care management. In general, receiving timely evaluations from professionals specializing in endocrinology can help ensure an accurate diagnosis and successful management of your health condition.


Can It Disease Be Cured, or Must It Be Managed for Life With Medication And/or Surgery?

 While there is no single answer to the question of whether the disease can be cured, most industry experts maintain that successful management of this condition requires medication and/or surgery. The complexity of thyroidal dysfunction and the fact that there are various causes make it difficult to say whether or not the disease can be cured definitively. However, since early diagnosis and treatment can help reduce or even eliminate symptoms in some cases, it is important to seek medical attention should any signs or symptoms present themselves. In some instances, medications may prove effective at restoring normal levels of their hormones.  Ultimately, medical intervention and lifestyle adjustments are essential for controlling this condition and achieving a sense of well-being. Therefore, while there may be potential for permanently curing certain forms of the disease, successful management usually depends on ongoing treatment.


Are There Any Natural Ways to Treat or Cure The Disease?

While there is no one-size-fits-all answer to whether there are natural ways to treat it, industry leaders agree that for some patients, these methods can help improve their overall health. There are a variety of possibilities, from dietary and lifestyle changes to supplementation with herbs and other natural remedies. By evaluating a patient’s current diet and lifestyle and making individualized recommendations to support good nutrition and optimize hormonal balance, natural treatment modalities can be effectively used for many people. Additionally, practitioners may suggest healing essential oils be applied topically or diffused to aid in relaxation and reduce stress levels. Although these approaches alone may not “cure” a condition, such as an autoimmune disorder like Hashimoto’s or Graves’ Disease, they have the potential to produce improved well-being. When combined with conventional medical therapies, such as hormone replacement therapy, natural treatment methods can help improve outcomes when it comes to treating disease. As always, it’s important to consult a physician before starting treatments.


What Are the Risks of Untreated or Undertreated Thyroid Disease?

Untreated or under-treated this disease can lead to several risks and complications, depending on the individual’s condition. It can most often cause changes in body weight, such as weight gain, fatigue, dry skin and hair, headaches, and general malaise. Over time, the untreated condition can lead to more serious physical issues, including heart palpitations, difficulty breathing, and extreme sensitivity to cold temperatures. In addition to physical risks, undiagnosed or under-treated stalemate can have far-reaching mental health implications. Common effects include anxiety and depression, inability to concentrate, and decreased motivation. As experts in the field of this disorder management understand all too well, it is imperative that individuals with signs or symptoms seek medical advice to manage the condition properly. Ignoring the risks associated with this widespread condition could potentially have long-term repercussions that are preventable if addressed promptly. It is important for patients living with this chronic imbalance to take an active role in understanding their diagnosis and subsequent treatment options so that they can control their future health outcomes accordingly. 



Thyroid disease is an incredibly common disorder with many possible treatments, both conventional and natural. It’s important to remember that no single approach will work for everyone. It’s important to discuss this with your doctor before beginning any course of treatment. Additionally, if you have been diagnosed with the condition, be sure to follow your doctor’s instructions and take any prescribed medications to manage your condition.


Thyroid Ultrasonography

By Endocrinology

Ultrasound is a type of diagnostic imaging that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce an image of internal tissues. In medicine, ultrasound is used in many ways to perform various examinations and procedures. The most common use of ultrasound is imaging the fetus in utero to check for any congenital abnormalities. In medicine, ultrasound is also used to diagnose problems in internal tissues such as the thyroid. Here we will discuss thyroid ultrasonography and what it is used for by doctors.


What is Thyroid
It is a small butterfly-shaped gland in the front lower part of the neck. It makes hormones that control how fast the body burns energy and how sensitive it should be to other hormones produced in other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which causes the gland to make these hormones.

The gland plays a critical role in regulating your metabolism. The two essential functions of the gland include the production of the hormone thyroxine and the promotion of iodine uptake by tissues. The hormones regulate metabolism and body temperature. In addition, they also help to control organs such as your heart, muscles, lungs, and brain.

The diseases that affect the gland are known as endocrine disorders. They affect the gland’s ability to produce hormones, causing many symptoms that vary depending on the disease. Symptoms of the diseases include weight gain in women, balding in men, and fatigue in children. But most often affect adults between 20 and 60 years of age.

What is Ultrasonography
Ultrasonography is a noninvasive way to use high-frequency sound waves to produce an image of the inside of the body. In medicine, ultrasound machines are typically used to generate images of internal organs such as the thyroid and breasts.

The patient lies on a bed, and the ultrasound probe is placed on top of their organs. The search sends rapid pulses of sound waves at frequencies exceeding 20,000 cycles per second (Hz). When these sound waves hit the body’s internal tissue, they create recorded echoes.

These echoes are then electronically processed to produce images of the inside of the body. The images produced by ultrasound contain excellent detail and can be used to diagnose problems in internal tissues of the body. This technique is also more precise than X-rays because ultrasound pulses at a single frequency rather than rapid pulses at different frequencies.

Ultrasonography helps to diagnose and detect some abnormalities of the gland. This examination is painless and can be performed anywhere, including in a patient’s home. It yields fast results that can quickly aid in the diagnosis process. Ultrasonography is also very accurate for identifying gland problems. The procedure does not expose the body to harmful ionizing radiation such as X-rays. This makes it a preferred method for many doctors to diagnose gland disease.

Common uses of Ultrasound
Everyday use of ultrasound is in detecting microcalcifications.Microcalcifications can increase the risk of developing certain cancers, including throat and breast cancer. Ultrasound examination allows doctors to see these calcifications early on before they can cause problems.

Screening for thyroid cancer. Cancerous cells in the gland often display abnormal features on ultrasound that are used to diagnose cancer. If an endocrinologist diagnoses it, the doctor treats it with surgery to remove the growth before it spreads.

Evaluation of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. One of the critical roles of ultrasonography is to screen patients for problems with their thyroids by providing a detailed view of their condition. When there is a problem with the gland, it can change in consistency or size. Ultrasound can detect these changes in the gland and alert the doctor to further testing to make a diagnosis.

Evaluation of nodules and goiters before thyroid surgery. A surgeon planning to perform surgery on a patient’s gland will use ultrasound before the procedure to determine if any problems exist with the gland. If the gland has a nodule, a cyst, or other abnormalities, it will be removed during surgery.

Testing the gland after radioactive iodine therapy. The ultrasound monitors patients who have undergone radioactive iodine treatment for hyperthyroidism and gland cancer. If the patient experiences any problems with their gland after treatment, an ultrasound is used to determine the problem and determine if further medical procedures are needed.

It is used to evaluate complications after thyroidectomy. Patients undergoing surgery to remove their gland may still have difficulties. Ultrasound can detect any problems with the gland after treatment, such as the presence of a cyst or any remaining nodules.

They are used in evaluating abnormal results on the gland blood tests. Although ultrasound is not a diagnostic test for the disease, it can confirm abnormal results from other blood tests, such as the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level.

The gland is most often removed in cases of cancer. However, many other problems can cause a person to develop a nodule on their gland. Many times this growth is benign. This means that it is not cancerous and poses no danger to the patient.

If the patient has any concerns about the growth of their gland, they will undergo a series of tests to determine the type of condition they have. A lab test will be performed to determine if the growth is cancerous. If the patient has a cancerous gland, surgery will be recommended.

An endocrinologist who has detected thyroid cancer often recommends that the patient undergo radioactive iodine treatment, killing the gland’s cells. The gland then shrinks so it can no longer produce hormones.

Thyroid ultrasound is a noninvasive procedure used to detect abnormal growths or changes in the size of the gland. These changes often accompany disease in the gland and can cause many symptoms, such as weight gain, fatigue, and increased appetite. An endocrinologist often recommends that people undergo a ultrasound if they are experiencing these symptoms because it is a fast and reliable method for diagnosing disease. It is cost-effective and can be performed in a doctor’s office or the patient’s home.

What are Early Warning Signs of Thyroid Problems?

By Endocrinology

Health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid have various signs and symptoms. Identifying the warnings in advance is essential. It helps you seek early medical attention. Diagnosis and early treatment prevent the long-term effects of these diseases. Read on to discover the early warning signs of thyroid complications and seek medical assistance early.

Gastrointestinal Problems

Endocrine complications have a significant impact on the digestive system. People with these complications are more likely to experience low acid secretion causing malnutrition due to reduced absorption of nutrients. Low stomach acid also leaves you susceptible to bacterial growth, consequently increasing your susceptibility to infections. Fortunately, with the services of an endocrinologist, you can mitigate the effects.

Hypothyroidism is linked to an esophageal infection that leads to heartburn. It is also associated with delayed gastric emptying, which might lead to vomiting and nausea. In extreme conditions, you will experience abdominal discomfort and bloating. It also causes problems with blood sugar levels.

Lumps on the Neck

Swelling in your neck is not always due to thyroid cancer. However, a thorough investigation is vital. According to research, one in every 20 cases of neck lumps results from cancer. Others are caused by non-cancerous swellings known as goiters.

Seek medical attention for the lump if it lasts two to three weeks. Your doctor will examine the swelling effectively and give the appropriate recommendations.

Hair Loss

Hair loss in thyroid complications involves the entire scalp rather than patches on your head. Your hair appears thin and scarce all over. Although hair loss can be due to other factors, if you notice any changes in your hair growth and cycling, it would be best if you sort medical assistance to rule out endocrine disorders.

Fortunately, regrowth is possible with the advanced treatment of the disease. However, keep in mind that it may take an extended period, and you might not ultimately achieve the growth and volume you had initially.

Aside from consulting a doctor, you can try home remedies such as increased iron intake to boost your regrowth. Also, avoid anti-inflammatory foods and regulate iodine intake. Make sure to inform your physician before trying any home remedies.

Eye Problems

The disorder also impacts your vision. It causes an autoimmune disease that makes your eyes watery or dry. You might notice that your eyes are gritty and more sensitive to light. Moreover, it causes problems with vision; you are likely to experience double vision.

In extreme circumstances, it becomes difficult to close your eyes. They may even bulge outward with swelling in the eyelids. At times, the front of the eyes also appears swollen.

To diagnose the condition, visit a physician for vision and color testing. They’ll also perform eye pressure measurements and readings. Also, they’ll examine the optic nerve and recommend you to an optician if necessary.

Memory Problem

Memory loss is common among people with endocrinal disorders. Conditions such as Grave’s disease result from hyperthyroidism. It lowers the concentration span and slows your reaction to situations.

In addition, your internal and external organization to the things in the surroundings is reduced. Ultimately, the effects lead to a memory lapse.

If you suffer from an underactive disorder, the production of hormones slows down and causes brain fog. It affects the brain areas responsible for memories, consequently causing forgetfulness. It also makes it difficult for you to develop cognitive abilities.

Although it is possible to attain back your memory, you are required to take the prescribed medication regularly and correctly. In addition, visit your endocrinologist for follow-up appointments and routine checking.

Weight Changes

Unexplained weight change is among the early signs of thyroid disorder. Hypothyroidism is associated with obesity since hormones are highly produced. An endocrinologist recommends eating a balanced diet to reduce the effects.

Eating meals rich in vegetables, lean meat, and fruits would be best. They have fewer calories, thus allowing you to lose weight. On the other hand, low hormone levels lead to hyperthyroidism. The condition causes unexpected weight loss due to accelerated metabolism.

In this case, the body consumes a lot of energy while resting, hence weight loss. Your doctor might recommend foods rich in vitamin D and omega 3 to prevent excessive weight loss. Also, avoid too much intake of iodized salt.

Sensitivity to Temperature Changes

Endocrinal disorders increase your sensitivity to hot and cold weather. Your metabolism slows down, which lowers the core body temperature. This causes low tolerance to cold. You will feel cold even during the hot summer months.

Additionally, the condition controls the heartbeat, which results in poor circulation. Improper blood circulation causes cold feet and hands.

Hyperthyroidism is the vice versa of an underactive disorder. The body’s metabolism rate increases, resulting in high heat emissions from your body. Moreover, the cutaneous blood flow increases, causing warmth in the palms and elbows. Extreme heat causes redness in the face.

Skin Problems

Although the condition is in the neck region, your dermatologist will likely notice unusual skin tone. Your nails are also affected; they will appear swollen with a curved fingertip. Additionally, the skin above the nail thickens and develops horizontal ridges running from side to side.

In hypothyroidism disorder, your epidermis tends to be pale due to low water content. In addition, your skin appears cool and dry with a lot of itchiness—the coldness results from slow metabolic reactions and low body temperature.

On the end of the spectrum, an overactive condition causes oily skin. Your body overproduces hormones that add moisture to the skin pores and hair follicles. Water on the epidermis leads to acne and breakouts.

Mood Swings

Among other conditions, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are known to cause mood changes. The more severe the illness is, the more extreme the mood changes. With the overactive condition (hyperthyroidism), you experience panic attacks, tension, anxiety, and impatience. In addition, you become extremely sensitive to noise.

Contrary, with the underactive condition, you feel stressed and overwhelmed. You also experience tearfulness and dulling of your personality. This can also happen due to side effects of treatments such as beta-blockers. They slow the heartbeat and make you tired and depressed.

Many symptoms of endocrine issues cause mood swings and depression disorders. Seek faster medical attention to avoid the psychological effects.

Are you experiencing the above symptoms and are in need of professional diagnosis and treatment in Florida and surrounding areas? Look no further. Dr. Pedro, I Troya has excellent skills to handle all your complications. Contact Bay Area Endocrinology Associates to book an appointment.



The Dangers of Radioactive Scans and Radio-line Treatment for Pregnant Women

By Endocrinology

Most expectant mothers would think twice before making the decision to do a radioactive scan or radio-line treatment during pregnancy. The risks of radiation exposure during pregnancy are well documented and understood. The consequences of overexposure can be life-threatening for the mother and her unborn child. Due to this, pregnant women must take special care when exposed to harmful radiation treatments. However, some medical practices have countered this advice by promoting radio-line treatment as a safe alternative for pregnant women. This article will address these dangers and why you should avoid these scans if you’re pregnant.


What is the radioactive treatment?

Radioactive treatment, also known as radiation therapy, is used to kill cancer cells and prevent the recurrence of certain diseases. This treatment is used on people with certain cancers, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, or prostate cancer. This treatment can also treat benign growths, such as uterine fibroids and skin tags. Radioactive scans use radioactive substances that emit ionizing radiation to produce images of the organs and body. This type of radiation is very similar to x-rays in that it is electromagnetic radiation that can be harmful when you are exposed to too much of it.

Radioactive scans

When you undergo a radioactive scan, the equipment used to produce the images emits radiation that can, in high doses, be harmful to your body. Two types of radioactive scans are commonly used for diagnostic purposes. The first is an “intravenous pyelogram” (IVP), in which a radio-pharmaceutical is injected into a vein, followed by an x-ray of the kidneys and bladder.

The second is a “helical” CT scan, or a CT scan performed with a unique rotating technique to reduce radiation exposure in the body. These scans are usually recommended as a last resort after other tests have failed to produce an accurate diagnosis, meaning that there should be no other viable options available to you.

Radio-line treatments

A radio-line treatment is a type of therapy that uses small amounts of radioactive material to treat various medical conditions. Radio-line treatments are typically carried out in a clinic with a specialized machine that emits a low dose of radiation. This radiation is emitted into the body through a thin tube inserted into the skin, allowing the radiation to reach the body’s tissues and organs.

These treatments are often used to kill off cancer cells and relieve pain. While this reduces the harm done to the patient, it also reduces the amount of energy absorbed by the fetus. Although the amount of radiation emitted into the body is low, the fetus is still susceptible to the harmful effects of the radiation. That’s why it’s important to avoid these types of treatments whenever possible.

Dangers of radioactive scans and radio-line treatments during pregnancy

When pregnant, your well-being and that of your fetus are of the utmost importance. That’s why pregnant women should be extra vigilant when it comes to avoiding health-threatening situations. Pregnant women are vulnerable to the harmful effects of radiation exposure. This is because their bodies have less protection against harmful substances due to the increased blood flow to the uterus.

As a result, any radiation exposure can cause damage to the unborn child. A pregnant woman can be exposed to harmful radiation if she is in the same room as a person undergoing a radioactive treatment or undergoes a radioactive scan or treatment herself. While the fetus is protected inside the uterus, radiation exposure can harm the mother and unborn child.

Because of the risks associated with radiation exposure, pregnant women should avoid as many radioactive scans and radio-line treatments as possible. However, some healthcare professionals still recommend that pregnant women receive an IVP (intravenous pyelogram) and CT scan, despite the radiation’s risks to the fetus. Even so, the guidelines for pregnant women undergoing radioactive scans and radio-line treatments are being re-evaluated by doctors worldwide.


During pregnancy, women should be careful about the type of medical treatment they seek. It is estimated that quite a number of women who give birth have one or more of these procedures during their pregnancy. Although radiation exposure is necessary for treating certain types of cancers, radioactive scans and radio-line treatments should be avoided as much by pregnant women. While these treatments can be beneficial when used in moderation and as a last resort, they risk overexposure to harmful amounts of radiation that can threaten the health and safety of the mother and fetus. Pregnant women should ask their endocrinologist whether they will be exposed to radiation and request alternative imaging techniques. For any thyroid conditions, please visit Bay Area Endocrinology Associates. We are located in Tampa, Florida.


The Thyroid’s Affect on Weight Loss

By Endocrinology

The thyroid is a gland that produces hormones that regulate your metabolism and affect how quickly you burn calories—usually slower. So if you have hypothyroidism, you’ll gain weight because it’s harder to lose weight with a slower metabolism, although it often takes time for the weight gain to become noticeable.

It is not something most people think about when they talk about weight loss and obesity. But the idea that the thyroid affects weight loss is real. Scientists have been studying this relationship for decades to answer some of the more critical questions regarding obese patients. They still aren’t sure if there is a causal relationship between underactive thyroxine and a slower metabolic rate. Still, there is inevitably some link between these two things.

What is the thyroid?

Thyroxine produces tiny amounts of two different hormones that are important to the functioning of your body. T3 stimulating hormone – increases the rate of metabolism in all cells and therefore increases the speed at which compounds are burned up. T4 – regulates blood calcium levels and promotes growth. These hormones are important because they regulate how quickly your body burns fat and whether or not you can grow. As you can see, these things are essential for weight loss. If either of them is low, then your body won’t be able to burn fat as fast.

How does the thyroid affect weight loss?

It is responsible for regulating your metabolism. But what does that mean? Well, metabolism refers to how your body can break down compounds and produce energy. The more energy your body can use, the quicker it will burn fat.

That’s important because fat is stored in body tissues to provide an emergency source of energy when food isn’t available, and you need to be able to move. Unfortunately, if your metabolism is too slow, this emergency energy source will not be enough, and you’ll gain weight. There are two ways that the condition controls your metabolism. One of them increases metabolic rate while the other one reduces it.

1. Increasing metabolic rate

Reducing your metabolic rate is the most common way that the problem will affect your ability to lose weight. Hypothyroidism is the most common cause of an underperforming metabolism. Hypothyroidism is when there isn’t enough T3 and T4 in your body. When this happens, you’ll have a slower metabolism, and it’ll be harder for you to burn fat.

Besides having a slower metabolism, there are other effects you should understand. For example, your body will also use more of the fat you already have, and it’ll just get stored as excess. Another piece is that because fat has lower energy requirements than carbs, you’ll gain weight when your thyroid’s metabolic rate slows.

2. Decreasing metabolic rate

On the other hand, a second way affects weight loss. And this one isn’t as common, but it’s still genuine. Sometimes, there aren’t enough hormones in your body, and your metabolism will become too high, and it’ll be impossible for you to burn fat. It occurs when either the T3 or T4 levels in your body are low.

So, what causes this? It doesn’t happen to every individual, but it often happens enough to cause some concern. Sometimes, the thyroid can be damaged or destroyed, and either of these things will end up causing other problems.

The Effect on Weight Loss

Besides having a slower metabolism, there are other effects of low-functioning thyroxine that you should understand. For example, your body will also use more of the fat you already have, and it’ll just get stored as excess. Another piece is that fat has lower energy requirements than carbs; you’ll gain weight when your metabolic rate is slow.

Another effect is that your body will have a tough time using the protein in your muscles, which can lead to muscle wasting. Overall, these statements have clear implications for weight loss. The less efficient your metabolism is, the harder it’ll be to lose weight effortlessly.

What are its Symptoms?

The signs of hypothyroidism include:
Weight gain. It is the most common sign that you have a problem. You may not even realize that you’re gaining weight, but if you eat less than others and the weight goes on.
• Sleep problems. Even if you do not think you have a sleeping problem, the chances are that you will. Night snoring and other problems dealing with sleep can signify the condition.

Fatigue. Although this is only one of the symptoms, it’s an important one because it can make you lose interest in your dieting efforts, and you’ll feel tired. It might be hard to find out that you have this problem until it gets awful.

Hair loss or baldness. People with hypothyroidism lose their hair. But if you notice that your hair is getting thinner or bald patches have appeared, it’s an indication that the condition has worsened.

If you feel that you suffer from this problem creating weight problems, arrange for an appointment with an endocrinologist in the Bay area located in Tampa. They will assist you in helping your thyroid function properly again.

The ideal weight depends on genetics, activity level, emotional state, and age. The more hormones you have that regulate weight loss and metabolism, the more likely it is that you’ll be able to maintain healthy body weight while still losing weight. It isn’t always easy to find out where those hormones are located or how they control your metabolism. That’s why our professionals are here to help you!

Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism

By Endocrinology

Multiple things must happen in the body to achieve homeostasis, the state of balance among all the body systems required for the body to survive and function optimally. And one of those things is a thyroid gland that secretes the right amount of two life-sustaining hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). If this butterfly-shaped gland secretes too much or too little of these hormones, it can spell trouble. Too much or too little T4 or T3 can trigger hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. And both conditions will usually compel individuals to schedule an appointment with a licensed endocrinologist.


How Common Is Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism?

Only 1% of the U.S. population suffers from hyperthyroidism. And only 5% suffer from hypothyroidism. So neither of these thyroid-related conditions are especially common in the U.S., but they can have a profound impact on those diagnosed with them. To put into perspective how these two thyroid-related conditions can affect someone’s life, it helps to look at some of the associated symptoms. The ones that go hand-in-hand with hyperthyroidism include the following: Chronic nervousness or irritability, fatigue, muscle weakness, heat intolerance, insomnia, tremors, arrhythmia, diarrhea, weight loss, mood swings, and developing a goiter or swollen neck, and difficulty breathing or swallowing.

As far as hypothyroidism is concerned, the most commonly reported symptoms to include the following: chronic fatigue, weight gain, a puffy face, cold intolerance,  muscle, and joint pain, constipation, dry skin, thinning hair, anhidrosis, Heavy or irregular menstrual periods, fertility issues in women, depression, and  bradycardia

Endocrinologists in Tampa Discuss Using Prescription Drugs to Treat Thyroid-Related Disorders

Thyroid hormone drugs can effectively treat hyperthyroidism. Some of the ones that physicians in Tampa, FL, including Dr. Pedro Troya, an endocrinology expert with Bay Area Endocrinology Associates in Tampa, Florida, prescribe the most include:

Methimazole (Tapazole) and propylthiouracil (PTU) – These particular drugs work by inhibiting the secretion of excessive amounts of t4 and t3 hormones. For this reason, they are among the go-to drugs for treating hyperthyroidism.

Radioactive iodine – Another go-to medication used to combat hyperthyroidism and the related symptoms is radioactive iodine. This medication works by destroying excessive t4 and t3 hormones and shrinking the overall size of an individual’s thyroid gland.

Beta-blockers – Although they are probably not the first drugs to come to mind for combating hyperthyroidism, they do work for that purpose, according to a study published by Cleveland Clinic. Along with being an excellent class of drugs for reducing high blood pressure, beta-blockers can help ease the tremors, rapid heartbeat, shakiness, and other symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism.

All of these treatment modalities to combat hyperthyroidism can sometimes cause side effects. Some of the ones commonly reported include developing a rash, itchy skin, unusual hair loss, and fever.


How Are Drugs Prescribed to Treat Hyperthyroidism Administered?

Methimazole, propylthiouracil, radioactive iodine, and beta-blockers are all taken orally, and they are generally safe when taken as prescribed by a physician. Studies show Methimazole and propylthiouracil, specifically, can reduce T4 and T3 hormone levels within 6 to 12 weeks. And most people also report experiencing relief from their hyperthyroidism symptoms. As far as radioactive iodine is concerned, most people will see a drop in their T4 and T3 levels within 1 to 3 months of being on the medication. Throughout that time, their struggles with hyperthyroidism symptoms will start to lessen. Beta-blockers work the fastest; studies show that individuals taking Propranolol and similar beta-blockers see a drop in T4 and T3 levels within minutes of administration, not to mention a noticeable easing of symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism.


Medications to Treat Hypothyroidism

Treating hypothyroidism typically entails using prescription-based drugs to replace T4 and T3 hormones that the body can no longer produce naturally. These hormone replacement drugs, available in tablet, capsule, and injectable form, might include Levoxyl, Synthroid, Tirosint, Unithroid, Unithroid Direct, and the generic levothyroxine. Studies show most individuals will see positive results in their hormone levels and experience relief from hypothyroidism symptoms within 6 to 8 weeks. That said, some unpleasant side effects can stem from taking levothyroxine and other hormone drugs, including unintended weight gain or weight loss, headache, vomiting and diarrhea, changes in appetite, and fever

All in all, thyroid-related disorders are rare, but they can be a nightmarish experience for those living with them. If you’re experiencing any of the symptoms detailed in this article, you’re encouraged to contact Bay Area Endocrinology Associates today.

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