Serving All Of Tampa Bay

Thyroid Disorders

Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

The thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland in the neck responsible for producing and secreting hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the body. Thyroid-related disorders are conditions that affect the function of this gland and can lead to an overactive or underactive reaction.

These conditions can significantly impact a person’s health and well-being. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to managing these thyroid conditions and preventing complications. These disorders affect millions worldwide and can lead to various symptoms and health problems. The most common thyroid-related diseases include the following.

1. Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a common thyroid-related disorder that occurs when the gland produces insufficient hormones. The symptoms of hypothyroidism can be subtle and may develop slowly over months or even years. Common symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Cold intolerance
  • Constipation
  • Dry skin
  • Hair loss
  • Muscle weakness
  • Depression
  • Memory problems

Diagnosing hypothyroidism usually involves a blood test to measure the levels of hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the body. If the TSH level is high and T3 and T4 levels are low, it usually indicates hypothyroidism.

Treatment for hypothyroidism typically involves hormone replacement therapy. Levothyroxine is the most commonly prescribed medication and is usually taken once daily as a pill. The medication replaces the missing hormones and helps to restore the body’s normal function. The dosage is generally adjusted periodically to ensure that hormone levels remain within the normal range.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and diet is essential when diagnosed with hypothyroidism. A diet that includes iodine-rich foods like fish, dairy, and eggs can help support thyroid function. Regular exercise and stress management techniques like meditation or yoga can help support the body’s overall health.

With proper diagnosis and treatment, most people can manage hypothyroidism effectively. It’s essential to follow your healthcare provider’s advice and take your medication as directed to manage your symptoms and improve your quality of life.

2. Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a common thyroid-related disorder when the gland produces too much hormone. This hormone plays a crucial role in regulating the body’s metabolism, which affects various bodily functions like heart rate, body temperature, and energy levels. When too much of this hormone is produced, it can cause several symptoms, including:

  • Rapid heart rate
  • Tremors
  • Anxiety
  • Weight loss
  • Insomnia
  • Increased sweating
  • Diarrhea
  • Increased appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle weakness

The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is made by a blood test called a thyroid function test, which measures the levels of hormones in the blood. Additionally, a physical examination may be conducted to check for an enlarged gland or other symptoms.

Once the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is confirmed, treatment may include medication, surgery, or radioactive iodine therapy. Medication is typically used to reduce hormone production, while surgery may be necessary to remove a portion of the gland. Radioactive iodine therapy involves using radioactive iodine to destroy the overactive tissue.

Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to manage hyperthyroidism effectively and prevent complications.

3. Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to inflammation and damage to the gland. The common symptoms of Hashimoto’s Disease include:

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Weight gain
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Joint pain and stiffness
  • Dry skin and hair
  • Brittle nails
  • Depression
  • Memory problems
  • Constipation

The diagnosis of Hashimoto’s disease is based on clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests. Blood tests are used to measure the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-peroxidase (TPO) antibodies. High TSH levels and low levels of T4 are commonly found in patients with Hashimoto’s disease, and the presence of TPO antibodies indicates an autoimmune disorder.

The primary treatment for Hashimoto’s disease is hormone replacement therapy with synthetic hormones, such as levothyroxine. This medication replaces the hormones that the damaged gland is no longer producing. The dosage is adjusted based on the patient’s symptoms, and TSH levels are monitored regularly with blood tests.

In addition to hormone replacement therapy, lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise and a healthy diet can help manage symptoms and improve overall health. It is also crucial for patients with Hashimoto’s disease to avoid iodine-rich foods and supplements, as excessive iodine intake can exacerbate the condition.

In some cases, surgery to remove part or all of the gland may be necessary if the gland is enlarged or causing significant symptoms despite hormone replacement therapy. However, this is a rare option only considered in severe cases.


Thyroid-related disorders are a common health problem affecting millions worldwide. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and Hashimoto’s disease are thyroid disorders that can cause a range of symptoms and impact the overall health and quality of life.

It’s essential to seek medical attention from a thyroid doctor if you experience symptoms of any thyroid-related disorder, as early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the condition effectively. A doctor can perform tests to determine the type of thyroid-related disorder and the best course of treatment.

In addition to medical treatment, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress management techniques can also help manage thyroid disorders’ symptoms. By working with a doctor and actively managing their health, people with thyroid-related conditions can lead healthy and fulfilling lives.

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Meet Our Endocrinologists

Our Endocrinologists, Dr. Carlo A. Fumero, Sean Amirzadeh, DO, Alberto Garcia Mendez, Lauren Sosdorf, and Pedro Troya, are board certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine and have a wealth of experience treating thyroid conditions. They will work with you to create a personalized treatment plan that meets your unique needs.


What our patients say about us

Deborah Diaz
Deborah Diaz
Attentive, thorough, compassionate, genuine, loyal.
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As a patient of Dr. Troya’s for several years, I would highly recommend this endocrinologist to anyone. He gives full attention to you and your needs without being pressed for time. His diagnosis and treatments are thorough with up-to-date technology and years of experience. His concern and compassion are genuine with your best interest at heart. After having multiple biopsies performed by Dr. Troya, I am definitely a loyal follower.
Victor Cruz
Victor Cruz
Successful diabetes treatment, complete care
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I have been going to Dr. Troya for a year. He has treated my Diabetes with great success. He communicates with my other doctors, so he has a complete medical history of all my health issues. We need more caring doctors like Dr. Troya who has the patient’s best interest at heart. I am very thankful for Dr. Pedro Troya.
Michael Hoover
Michael Hoover
Stabilized diabetes, regained pilot's license.
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I was a private pilot for 34 years before contracting Type 1 diabetes after a severe case of food poisoning in March of 2008. My first endocrinologist refused to assist me in working with the FAA to retain my pilot’s license. I became a patient of Dr. Troya in 2010. Since that time, he has put me on a Continuous Glucose Monitoring regime and helped me stabilize my blood glucose levels to levels that allow me to pass my FAA medical exam. His caring and interest in each patient's personal issues, as well as their medical outcomes, marks him as an outstanding physician.
KC Mullis
KC Mullis
Personable, caring, thorough, trusted physician.
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Dr. Carlos Fumero is a very personable and caring physician. He takes the time to listen and is very thorough in his evaluations and explanations. He exercises incredible care and concern. I have been referring family members and friends to Dr. Carlos Fumero for almost two years now. We are all exceptionally grateful to have found such a trusted physician. Thank you, Dr. Carlos Fumero. Your kindness and medical expertise are more appreciated than I could ever express in words.
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